Conflict of Interest Blog

Behavioral ethics and compliance index 2019

While in the more than seven years of its existence the COI Blog  has been devoted primarily to examining conflicts of interest it has also run quite a few posts on what behavioral ethics might mean for corporate compliance and ethics programs. Below is an updated version of a topical  index to these latter posts.  Note that a) to keep this list to a reasonable length I’ve put each post under only one topic, but many in fact relate to multiple topics (particularly the risk assessment and communication ones); and b) there is some overlap between various of the posts.

INTRODUCTION 

– Business ethics research for your whole company (with Jon Haidt)

– Overview of the need for behavioral ethics and compliance

Behavioral ethics and compliance: strong and specific medicine

– Behavioral C&E and its limits

Another piece on limits

– Behavioral compliance: the will and the way

Behavioral ethics: back to school edition

A valuable behavioral ethics and compliance resource

BEHAVIORAL ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM COMPONENTS

Risk assessment

–  Being rushed as a risk

–  Too big for ethical failure?

– “Inner controls”

– Is the Road to Risk Paved with Good Intentions?

– Slippery slopes

– Senior managers

– Long-term relationships

– How does your compliance and ethics program deal with “conformity bias”? 

– Money and morals: Can behavioral ethics help “Mister Green” behave himself? 

– Risk assessment and “morality science”

 Advanced tone at the top

Communications and training

– “Point of risk” compliance

–  Publishing annual C&E reports

– Behavioral ethics and just-in-time communications

– Values, culture and effective compliance communications

– Behavioral ethics teaching and training

– Moral intuitionism and ethics training

Reverse behavioral ethics

The shockingly low price of virtue

Imagine the real

Positioning the C&E office

– What can be done about “framing” risks

Compliance & ethics officers in the realm of bias

Accountability

– Behavioral Ethics and Management Accountability for Compliance and Ethics Failures

– Redrawing corporate fault lines using behavioral ethics

– The “inner voice” telling us that someone may be watching

–  The Wells Fargo case and behavioral ethics

Whistle-blowing

– Include me out: whistle-blowing and a “larger loyalty”

Incentives/personnel measures

– Hiring, promotions and other personnel measures for ethical organizations

Board oversight of compliance

– Behavioral ethics and C-Suite behavior

– Behavioral ethics and compliance: what the board of directors should ask

Corporate culture

– Is Wall Street a bad ethical neighborhood?

– Too close to the line: a convergence of culture, law and behavioral ethics

–  Ethical culture and ethical instincts

Values-based approach to C&E

 A core value for our behavioral age

– Values, structural compliance, behavioral ethics …and Dilbert

Appropriate responses to violations

– Exemplary ethical recoveries

BEHAVIORAL ETHICS AND SUBSTANTIVE AREAS OF COMPLIANCE RISK

Conflicts of interest/corruption

– Does disclosure really mitigate conflicts of interest?

– Disclosure and COIs (Part Two)

– Other people’s COI standards

– Gifts, entertainment and “soft-core” corruption

– The science of disclosure gets more interesting – and useful for C&E programs

– Gamblers, strippers, loss aversion and conflicts of interest

– COIs and “magical thinking”

– Inherent conflicts of interest

Inherent anti-conflicts of interest

Conflict of interest? Who decides?

Specialty bias

Disclosure’s two-edged sword

Nonmonetary conflicts of interest

Charitable contributions and behavioral ethics

Insider trading

– Insider trading, behavioral ethics and effective “inner controls” 

– Insider trading, private corruption and behavioral ethics

Legal ethics

– Using behavioral ethics to reduce legal ethics risks

OTHER POSTS ABOUT BEHAVIORAL ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE

– New proof that good ethics is good business

How ethically confident should we be?

– An ethical duty of open-mindedness?

– How many ways can behavioral ethics improve compliance?

– Meet “Homo Duplex” – a new ethics super-hero?

– Behavioral ethics and reality-based law

Was the Grand Inquisitor right (about compliance)?

Compliance culture assessments – the why and the how

The latest post on the Compliance Program Assessment Blog.

Rebecca Walker and I hope you find it useful.

Inherent anti-conflicts of interest

A post some years back explored the idea of “inherent conflicts of interest,”  COIs so embedded in a situation that they are essentially impossible to resist. In an important column this week in Wired UK , the eminent behavioral ethicist Dan Ariely describes an approach he has developed which might be considered inherent anti-COIs. He writes:

An example of this, with which I am involved, is Lemonade, an insurance provider. In the standard insurance model, consumers pay fees and, when something bad happens, they file a claim. The problem is that in this model, an insurance company benefits financially when it refuses to pay out, creating a conflict of interest in its staff between the needs of consumers and the need for the company to make a profit. This is a tremendous conflict and some staff are likely to misbehave.

Lemonade, on the other hand, is not set up as a two-sided game between the consumer and company. Instead, we have made it a game with three players: the consumer, the insurance company and a charity that the consumer chooses. The consumer makes their payments. Lemonade keeps a fixed percentage, say 20 per cent, and pays claims from the remaining 80 per cent. Any money left over at the end of the year goes to the charity. Under this system, Lemonade makes the same profit whether it pays claims or not. And, if a consumer decides to inflate their claim, they are taking money from the charity they have nominated.

The shift here is a move from a system where companies simply ask customers to trust them, to a system where companies deliberately set up their business model in order to create trust.

In 2019, I believe we will see more companies using this approach and more consumers rewarding them for it. We are every day becoming more weary of the conflicts of interest and dishonesty that plagues so much of business and soon we will start choosing companies that have systems in place to avoid them.

I think that this is a terrific idea and hope that we will indeed see more examples of it in the coming year.

Finally, part of my wish list for 2019 is that we will also  learn from this experience more about what works generally and what doesn’t when it comes to messaging/marketing to turn ethical behavior to commercial advantage.  Among other things,  inherent anti-COIs should be a marketing “plus” not only in the insurance business but also in selling medical services and investment advice, among other things.  But actually making the cash register ring this way seems likely to be a real challenge.

International Chamber of Commerce publishes conflict of interest guidelines

The International Chamber of Commerce – apparently the world’s largest business organization – recently published Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest in Enterprises. It is available for free download here.

Among other things, the Guidelines provide a useful summary of what should generally be included in a COI compliance policy:

Objective: first, the prevention of Conflicts of Interest, and if nevertheless they do arise, dealing with them, disclosing them and finally mitigating the risks of them arising;

Scope: applicable and binding for all directors, officers, managers, employees, agents and representatives (Associates) of the Enterprise;

Definitions: include clear definitions;

Provisions:

– comply with all applicable laws and regulations in addition to internal regulations of the Enterprise, including privacy laws and policies;

– all decisions and actions by all Associates shall be taken in the best interest of the Enterprise;

– Associates shall not take business opportunities that belong to the Enterprise for themselves;

– Associates shall immediately disclose any Conflicts of Interest;

– Associates shall abstain or withdraw from debating, voting, or other decision-making processes or activities when a Conflict of Interest exists or might arise;

– Senior Management shall lead by example and give guidance on Conflicts of Interest;

– job applicants and newly hired or appointed Associates shall disclose any Conflicts of Interest immediately during the hiring or appointment process;

– every member of Senior Management shall update his/her disclosure on Conflicts of Interest at least annually to the Compliance Officer, or any other person in charge of the Conflict of Interest Policy;

– provision on communication and training on Conflicts of Interest;

– provision explaining where guidance may be obtained in case of questions or concerns; and

– provision on regular reporting of Conflicts of Interest and evaluation of the Policy.

Overall, I agree with these recommendations, but to me the principal value of the Guidelines lies more in the very fact that it exists than the particulars of its various provisions.

That is, perhaps because COIs are so widespread and diffuse (meaning not the subject of a unified legal regime), they often seem to discourage meaningful efforts to mitigate them in the type of programmatic way that one typically sees with anti-bribery and competition law. The Guidelines – issued by an organization with six million members – is an important step in the direction of making such approach a mainstream expectation.

(For more information on the components of a COI compliance program see the various entries and subentries under “Compliance” on the index on the left hand part of this blog – also available here.)

Conflict of interest? Who decides?

Many companies have, of course, escalation provisions for responding to allegations of wrongdoing. But do they need such provisions with respect to routine self disclosures of conflicts of interest?

At least for some companies that allow line managers to approve disclosed conflicts the answer is, in my view, Yes. That is in part because managers may – thanks to the behavioral ethics phenomenon of  “motivated blindness” – be inclined to “go easy” on a particularly valued employee who has disclosed a COI.  Line managers may also fail to appreciate in such situations the danger to the compliance program generally of an overly liberal approach to COIs – particularly to the sense of “organizational justice” at the company.

But what should an escalation provision entail? Here are some possibilities, meaning circumstances where the line manager should be required to enlist the help of HR, Compliance or Legal in addressing a disclosed COI:

– Disclosure is by a relatively high-level person.

– Disclosure is by a person in a controls function.

– Conduct would tend to diminish trust of key stakeholders in the company. (Most important of all the criteria – but also hardest to apply.)

– Conduct involves a relatively high degree of money or other tangible or intangible  interests.

– Resolving disclosed conflict would entail complicated fact finding.

– Resolving conflict would entail interpretation of legal or regulatory mandates.

Finally, and perhaps less obvious than the others, going forward, would the manager be sufficiently aware of the relevant actions of the disclosing employee to help ensure adherence to Company COI standards? In other words, can the manager act like a de facto COI monitor?

A short post on directors’ compliance duties

From the most recent issue of Compliance & Ethics Professional (p 3 of PDF).

I hope you find it interesting.

Hire the guilt prone

In a recent edition of Knowledge at Wharton, Maurice Schweitzer of that school discusses a paper, “Who is Trustworthy? Predicting Trustworthy Intentions and Behavior,” he co-authored with T. Bradford Bitterly, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business, Taya R. Cohen, a professor at Carnegie Mellon University’s Tepper School of Business, and Emma Levine, a professor at the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business. Schweitzer notes:

We tapped into a personality trait that hasn’t received as much attention as say, the “Big Five” personality traits [extraversion, openness, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness.] The personality trait we tapped into is something called guilt proneness, or how prone someone is to feeling guilty. Imagine you’re out at a party. You have a glass of red wine, and you spill some red wine onto a white carpet. How would you feel? The people who would feel extremely guilty about that are the people who are prone to feeling guilt. Now what’s interesting is that people who are prone to feeling guilt, they don’t actually experience a lot more guilt because they spend a lot of effort trying to avoid putting themselves in that position. Those are the people who would say, if I’m if I’m going to be drinking wine over a white carpet, I’m having white wine. Those are the people that are thinking ahead to make sure they’re not missing deadlines. They’re not falling short of your expectations. They’re going to take their time and work extra hard to take other precautions. Those are the guilt-prone people. And it turns out that those people are pretty reliable. And when it comes to being trustworthy, those are the people we should be trusting.

This makes sense to me as an intuitive matter. But more than that, we have only to look at the example set by President Trump, who seems to show no guilt about anything – and who is as untrustworthy as any leader can be.

I’m not sure how compliance officers can operationalize this research. But for citizens the implications couldn’t be clearer.

Compliance officers as entrepreneurs?

In a paper recently published by Boston University School of Law – The Law Office (LO) and Compliance Officer (CO): Status, Function, Liabilities, and Relationship  – Emerita Professor Tamar Frankel of that school quotes a former SEC official (John Walsh, then Chief Counsel, Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations) as noting the following:

[C]ompliance officers have the characteristics of entrepreneurs. They have the “what next” mentality. They are excited about change and interested in the unknown; perhaps because the unknown is where their opportunities lie. They are not afraid of what they do not know and are eager to learn. With continuous learning come recognizing problems and ideas for solutions. They focus on creating and implementing new ways of doing things. Often, they are more interested in the future than in the present or the past, particularly if the future promises better methods and results. This process and the ideas it brings, are the exciting for entrepreneurs. In this respect COs are similar to entrepreneurs.

Note that these remarks are from a speech given in 2002, and compliance is not quite as new a profession now as it was then. On the other hand, the expectations of COs are now escalating steadily and the need for COs to have an entrepreneurial mindset – and entrepreneurial reputation within their respective companies – is as great as ever.

But COs are not the only members of the compliance universe who need be entrepreneurial in how they approach their work. Prosecutors should do so too, as the Department of Justice seemed to recognize in 2015 by creating the position of Compliance Counsel for the Fraud Section. The lawyer appointed to that post – Hui Chen – noted in an interview with Ethical Systems:

By creating the Compliance Counsel role, the Fraud Section in the Criminal Division sought to bring in-house expertise to that evaluation [of target companies’ compliance programs]. In doing so, the Fraud Section both recognizes compliance as an area of professional expertise, and heightens the significance of that expertise as something that is critical to companies.

Chen was (and is) clearly a compliance expert. And she seemed to bring an energy and engagement to her work that could fairly be called entrepreneurial.

However, she resigned in 2017, and last month the head of the Criminal Division announced that the position would not be filled. He noted:  “Our expectation is that the [Criminal] Division will develop a training program [for prosecutors] that addresses compliance programs generally, as well as issues specific to each section and unit.’”

Perhaps this new approach will work out okay. But without a true expert accountable for achieving compliance success at Justice I am doubtful that it will happen, as accountability is also part of what makes an entrepreneur.

I’ll be speaking on behavioral ethics with

Azish Filabi of  Ethical Systems at Navex’s Ethics & Compliance Virtual Conference on November 8.

We hope you can join us.

New on the Compliance Program Assessment Blog

A post on confidentiality and C&E assessments.

Rebecca Walker and I hope you find it useful.